Книга german soldiers of world war two

У нас вы можете скачать книгу книга german soldiers of world war two в fb2, txt, PDF, EPUB, doc, rtf, jar, djvu, lrf!

See updated day graph: Feb Apr 6, — Most Doukhobors already moved. Kosherization of the World: Ivanovka, Tourism, Ismailli region , Azerbaijan — " Праздники молокан — Calendar: Baja Wine - Bibayoff: Малаканская капуста, Вкус детсва Molokan cabbage, a taste from childhood , Jan 10, Photo: Lapsha — Katy Kobzeff: Guadalupe Valley, Mexico maps updated, details added.

Museums, Samarin restaurant, Bibayoff ranch, hotels. Rogoffs Sandra, Max, Allie photo. See much more about Molokans and Pryguny by Dr. Saf Ruh [Molokans A pure spirit approximate translation ]. Last Name Frequency Map: Shavei Israel , November 26, Tarasoff, July 31, Last of the [Pryguny] Molokans: The Russian spiritual community in Armenia survives a decline — Novye Izvestiia , December 4, Последние из молокан: Русская духовная община в Армении переживает упадок — Новые Известия , 4 декабря г.

Молодёжь национальных меньшинств PDF — Первая газета , 25 июля , ст. Хильмилли, Шемахинский р-н, Азербайджан, Grushenkovy family, Hilmilli village, Shemahinsky region, Azerbaijan, machine translated. Is your chai kosher? Mexican indigenous Russians rusos русскиe 6: From the Volga to the Salt River: Christian and Muslim Spiritual Songs of Russia " Molokan and Pryguny Genealogy Board went down for a few days.

Doukhobor leader John J. Молокане — Русский Базар, Русский колхоз посреди Азербайджана — Вести, Фамилии Молокан, генеалогические исследования Molokan Families, genealogy research — 27 May Невиданная Армения, , ct.

Molokans in Georgia , by: Gogi Tsagareli, June — 18 photos. Most is about Maksimists and Jumpers, not Constant Molokans. Artishchev, Fedotov, Moskalev, Rudakov, Seryaev. Молокане в Москве — Molokans in Moscow — New index page. Молокане присутствует на вероисповедном конференции — 29 ноября Molokans Attend Religious Conference — November 29, The Empire in Practice: Breyfogle , Columbia University conference, April 24, In Spirit and Life: Breyfogle , Ohio State University conference, May 18, Молокане вступили в Международную ассоциацию религиозной свободы — 27 Сентября, Molokans join International Religious Liberty Association — September 27, Проблемы этнокофессиональных групп духоборцев и молокан , С.

Инмкова, РАН, г. Inikova, Russian Academy of Science, A trip to Astrakhanovka — Azerbaidzhan-News, March 7, Aerial photo of Baku Molokan cemetery shows acres destroyed by new highway, houses. Государство и Церковь в России: Русская духовная община в Армении переживает упадок — 4 декабря г. The Last of the Molokans: The Russian spiritual community in Armenia survives a decline — December 4, Eugene Clay , Dept. Tolstoy helps Molokans from Samara, — Excerpts from Journal. Leo Tolstoy and Russian peasant sectarian writers: New York Times corrects error: Molokans "are not Russian Old Believers".

Read review and download free Russian language book. A Scattering of Seeds: Wrestling With The Spirit: A Doukhobor Story , — See 23 min.

The formation and contestation of Molokan identities and communities: The Australian Anthorpological Society Newsletter. Online Bookreviews, by Louis M. Russian Colonists Going to Mexico: Is Kosher Food Really Safer? The milk-drinking Molokans are far yet near — Molokans are Christian believers Photo is of a girl in Kochubeevskoe village, Stavropol territory, Russian Federation.

Atchilar News, Malakanlar — Turkish: The story of the banishment of the innocent and brave: Molokans — January Linked from: Molokans and Jumpers in Turkey. Preface and Postscript by Jonathan J. Will Moscow mayor help Molokans? Поможет ли мэр Москвы молоканам? Russian Genealogy , and Digging up your Russian Roots Two articles edited to show information most useful for Molokan genealogy. California Fires — Пожары в Калифорнии — All churches safe. San Marcos church near fire, area evacuated.

По Следам Молоканства история, факты, проповеди, полемика, обсуждение, фотоие On the Trail of Molokanism history, facts, sermons, controversy, discussion, photos На Ставрополье прошел град на 10 миллионов рублей — The Tape. RU , Sept 9, Translated: Baku Molokan Cemetery destroyed! Разрушение кладбища молокан в Бakу — дороги и дома строятся над могилами молокан.

Russian religious community prospers in Azerbaijan — Russia Today , July 21, Tatiana Grigoryeva seeks asylum. Donate to legal fund. Wedding set for Sept 23, Gervais, Oregon. Фильм о молокане в Азербайджане: Tarasoff, March 10, Guadalupe Valley — 4 newspaper links added. Google Account needed to view some pages. Doukhobor Exile to the Causacus, — Plus other good maps Molokans and Jumpers followed this and other routes to all parts of the Caucasus.

Из опыта изучения молокан Армении , К. Конкретные исследования современных религиозных верованийю. Case studies of contemporary religious beliefs.

Doukhobor Choir invition to free performances at Seattle Center. Tatiana Grigoryeva in Arizona prison. De Giorgi, Rome, Italy. The Old Russian Sects.

Christian religion in the Soviet Union: By Christel Lane Pages — Register to see book pages. Socio-political Accomodation and Religious Decline: Comparative Studies in Society and History. April Pages Third Visit to Europe. Chapters 37 and Malakan Christians in Russia [Kars], by Mr.

Bambir Rocks in Tchambarak. Page Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan , In order to control this demobilisation process, the number of military districts was temporarily increased to thirty-three, dropping to twenty-one in Soviet law required all able-bodied males of age to serve a minimum of 2 years.

As a result, the Soviet Army remained the largest active army in the world from to In the Soviet Union itself, forces were divided by the s among fifteen military districts , including the Moscow , Leningrad , and Baltic Military Districts. The trauma of the devastating German invasion of influenced the Soviet Cold War military doctrine of fighting enemies on their own territory, or in a buffer zone under Soviet hegemony, but in any case preventing any war from reaching Soviet soil.

As a result of the Sino-Soviet border conflict , a sixteenth military district was created in , the Central Asian Military District, with headquarters at Alma-Ata. The Soviet meaning of military doctrine was much different from U. According to Harriet F Scott and William Scott, the political side of Soviet military doctrine, best explained the international moves that the Soviet Union undertook during the cold war. In , however, the Soviet Army intervened in a civil war raging in Afghanistan.

The Soviet Army came to back a Soviet-friendly communist government threatened by a multinational, mainly afghan, insurgent groups called the mujahideen. The insurgents received military training in neighboring Pakistan, China, and billions of dollars from the United States, Saudi Arabia, and other countries.

Technically superior, the Soviets did not have enough troops to establish control over the countryside and to secure the border. This resulted from hesitancy in the Politburo , which allowed only a "limited contingent", averaging between 80, and , troops. Consequently, local insurgents could effectively employ hit-and-run tactics, using easy escape-routes and good supply-channels.

This made the Soviet situation hopeless from the military point of view short of using " scorched earth " tactics, which the Soviets did not practise except in World War II in their own territory. The understanding of this made the war highly unpopular within the Army. With the coming of glasnost , Soviet media started to report heavy losses, which made the war very unpopular in the USSR in general, even though actual losses remained modest, averaging per year.

The war also became a sensitive issue internationally, which finally led General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to withdraw the Soviet forces from Afghanistan. The " Afghan Syndrome " suffered by the Army parallels the American Vietnam Syndrome trauma over their own unsuccessful war in Vietnam. Tactically, both sides concentrated on attacking supply lines, but Afghan mujahideen were well dug-in with tunnels and defensive positions, holding out against artillery and air attacks.

The decade long war resulted in millions of Afghans fleeing their country, mostly to Pakistan and Iran. At least half a million Afghan civilians were killed in addition to the rebels in the war. From around to , the new leader of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to reduce the strain the Army placed on economic demands. His government slowly reduced the size of the army. By Soviet troops had completely left their Warsaw Pact neighbors to fend for themselves.

That same year Soviet forces left Afghanistan. By the end of , the entire Eastern Bloc had collapsed in the wake of democratic revolutions. As a result, Soviet citizens quickly began to turn against the Communist government as well.

As the Soviet Union moved towards disintegration, the reduced military was rendered feeble and ineffective and could no longer prop up the ailing Soviet government.

The military got involved in trying to suppress conflicts and unrest in the Caucasus and central Asia, but it often proved incapable of restoring peace and order. The next major crisis occurred in Azerbaijan , when the Soviet army forcibly entered Baku on January 19—20, , removing the rebellious republic government and allegedly killing hundreds of civilians in the process.

On January 13, Soviet forces stormed the State Radio and Television Building and the television retranslation tower in Vilnius , Lithuania , both under opposition control, killing 14 people and injuring This action was perceived by many as heavy-handed and achieved little. By mid, the Soviet Union had reached a state of emergency.

It remains unclear why exactly the military forces entered the city, but they clearly did not have the goal of overthrowing Gorbachev absent on the Black Sea coast at the time or the government. The coup failed primarily because the participants did not take any decisive action, and after several days of their inaction the coup simply stopped.

Only one confrontation took place between civilians and the tank crews during the coup, which led to the deaths of three civilians. Although the victims became proclaimed heroes, the authorities acquitted the tank crew of all charges. Nobody issued orders to shoot at anyone. Following the coup attempt of August , the leadership of the Soviet Union retained practically no authority over the component republics. Nearly every Soviet Republic declared its intention to secede and began passing laws defying the Supreme Soviet.

For the next year and a half various attempts to keep its unity and transform it into the military of the CIS failed. The share out mostly occurred on a regional basis, with Soviet soldiers from Russia becoming part of the new Russian Army, while Soviet soldiers originating from Kazakhstan became part of the new Kazakh Army. In mid-March , Yeltsin appointed himself as the new Russian Minister of Defence, marking a crucial step in the creation of the new Armed Forces of the Russian Federation , comprising the bulk of what was still left of the military.

The last vestiges of the old Soviet command structure were finally dissolved in June In the next few years, the former Soviet forces withdrew from central and Eastern Europe including the Baltic states , as well as from the newly independent post-Soviet republics of Azerbaijan , Armenia , Georgia partially , Uzbekistan , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan. Now-Russian forces remained in Tajikistan , and at isolated outposts including the Gabala space tracking station in Azerbaijan , the Baikonur Cosmodrome and other space facilities in Kazakhstan , and a naval test centre at Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan.

A Russian military presence also remained in Transnistria and Georgia. At its head was the Minister of Defense , generally a full member of the Politburo the Politburo, in turn, was chaired by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union , generally the de facto Leader of the Soviet Union and from onwards, a Marshal of the Soviet Union.

Both civilians and career military professionals served as Minister of Defense. Between and a separate Ministry of the Navy existed and the Ministry of Defense was responsible only for land and air forces. In practice the Navy Minister was a far more junior official and the Defense Ministry continued to dominate policymaking. By the s there were another eleven Deputy Minister of Defense; including the commanders-in-chief of the five service branches.

The early Red Army abandoned the institution of a professional officer corps as a "heritage of tsarism" in the course of the Revolution. In particular, the Bolsheviks condemned the use of the word "officer" and used the word " commander " instead. The Red Army abandoned epaulettes and ranks , using purely functional titles such as "Division Commander", "Corps Commander", and similar titles.

In it supplemented this system with "service categories", from K-1 lowest to K highest. The service categories essentially operated as ranks in disguise: The insignia now denoted the category, not the position of a commander.

However, one still had to use functional titles to address commanders, which could become as awkward as "comrade deputy head-of-staff of corps". On September 22, the Red Army abandoned service categories and introduced personal ranks. These ranks, however, used a unique mix of functional titles and traditional ranks. Further complications ensued from the functional and categorical ranks for political officers e. The year before , the revival of personal ranks began with the Marshal of the Soviet Union rank bestowed upon 5 Army Commanders.

There were further modifications to the system. On May 7, , the ranks of " General " or " Admiral " replaced the senior functional ranks of Kombrig , Komdiv , Komkor , Komandarm ; the other senior functional ranks "Division Commissar", "Division Engineer", etc.

On November 2, , the system underwent further modification with the abolition of functional ranks for non-commissioned officers NCOs and the introduction of the Podpolkovnik Lieutenant Colonel rank. In early all the functional ranks in technical and administrative corps became regularised ranks e. On October 9, the authorities abolished the system of military commissars, together with the commissar ranks.

The functional ranks remained only in medical, veterinary and legislative corps. In early a unification of the system saw the abolition of all the remaining functional ranks. The word "officer" became officially endorsed, together with the epaulettes that superseded the previous rank insignia. The ranks and insignia of did not change much until the last days of the USSR; the contemporary Russian Army uses largely the same system.

In the s however, it became a rank of its own when new regulations revived the Fleet Admiral rank in the Soviet Navy, thus becoming the naval equivalent to General of the Army. By , the final transformation of military ranks began as the rank of Praporshchik Warrant officer ranks being added in the Army and Air Force for contract NCOs since the rank of Starshina Sergeant Major was from now on for conscripts.

The year of saw the rank insignia changed for Army Generals and Navy Fleet Admirals in their parade dress and working and combat dress uniforms.

General Staff officers typically had extensive combat experience and solid academic training. The senior and supreme commanders received training at the Higher Military Academic Courses Высшие военно-академические курсы , renamed in as the Advanced Courses for Supreme Command Курсы усовершенствования высшего начальствующего состава ; in , the establishment of an Operations Faculty at the Frunze Military Academy supplemented these courses.

On April 2, , the General Staff Academy was re-instated; it became a principal school for the senior and supreme commanders of the Red Army and a centre for advanced military studies. One should note that Red Army and later Soviet Army educational facilities called "academies" do not correspond to the military academies in Western countries.

Those Soviet Academies were the post-graduate schools, mandatory for officers applying for senior ranks e. While a basic officer education in the Red Army was provided by the facilities named военная школа or военное училище - which may be generally translated as "school" and compared to Western "academies" like West Point or Sandhurst. The Soviet Armed Forces were manned through conscription, which had been reduced in from three to two years with remaining 3 years service in naval forces.

This system was administered through the thousands of military commissariats военный комиссариат, военкомат voyenkomat located throughout the Soviet Union. Between January and May of every year, every young Soviet male citizen was required to report to the local voyenkomat for assessment for military service, following a summons based on lists from every school and employer in the area.

По показаниям на допросе в тюрьме дашнака Оганеса Деведжяна, бывшего секретарем бюро правительства Армении, Нжде, возглавляя военное дело в Зангезуре , использовался дашнакским правительством Армении сперва по усмирению местных азербайджанцев , скорее по очищению территории Зангезура от азербайджанцев, а затем по борьбе против Красной Армии [9]. В Персии Нжде на некоторое время остановился в селе Мужамбар , а примерно через месяц перебрался в Тавриз.

Однако в апреле-мае года партийный конгресс, а затем й съезд 17 ноября января года , восстанавливает Нжде в рядах партии. Весной года его жену и сына сослали в болгарский город Павликени , где 24 февраля года Сукиасян скончалась от туберкулёза. В году Нжде участвовал на м Собрание Армянской Революционной Федерации , на котором присутствовали почти все известные армянские деятели в эмиграции. Нжде там представлял армянских эмигрантов Болгарии. Им было предложено несколько пунктов для организации армянской эмиграции с целью борьбы с против Турции и большевиков.

Основной задачей он считал организацию армянской молодёжи, с этой целью летом года он поехал в США [11]. При создании Цегакрона Нжде был в основном вдохновлён преобладающими в х годах расистскими теориями и идеологиями [13]. Его основной идеей было создать у североамериканской молодежи связь с четким понятием национальной идентичности. Основная мысль заключалась в том, что прежде всего следует рассматривать нацию [14]. Стиль и лозунги его движения вторили фашистским движениям Европы.

В униформе использовались два из трех цветов триколора павшей республики, синие рубашки и оранжевые платки. Мы не можем быть нейтральными в этом вопросе. Ибо, если мы останемся нейтральными, то, что станет с идентичностью армян за пределами родины. По мнению Томаса де Ваал , Нжде имел подлинно фашистский уклон, создавая эту организацию [16]. По мнению Тер-Минасяна, созданная Нжде организация опасна для армянства и может привести к расколу партии изнутри [11].

Позже их обучали в лагерях Абвера , под руководством Нжде, с целью переброски в дальнейшем на территорию Кавказа и Турции [17]. Возвратившись в Болгарию Нжде налаживает связи с Берлином, имевших целью убедить нацистов напасть на Турцию, а в начале х годов участвует в создании армянских военизированных частей в составе Вермахта , прошедших обучение под руководством инструкторов СС [18].

В году по инициативе нацистской военной администрацией был создан Армянский национальный совет Armenischen Nationalen Gremiums во главе с профессором Берлинского Университета Арташесом Абегяном. Для участия в работе совета Абегян приглашает Гарегина Нжде [20].

Он участвовал в их диверсионной подготовке, а также в переброски в тыл советской армии с целью ведения подрывной деятельности [23]. При приближении советских войск к Софии Нжде отказался покинуть Болгарию, свой поступок он сам мотивировал тем, что не желал подставлять под удар свою организацию и к тому же надеялся на то, что СССР вскоре объявит войну Турции и Нжде сможет принять в этой войне непосредственное участие. После вступления советских войск он написал письмо с этим предложением главнокомандующему советскими войсками в Болгарии генералу Толбухину.

Сотрудничество Нжде с нацистами привело к его аресту советской военной контрразведкой в Болгарии [20]. Арест Нжде предваряло задержание болгарской полицией, основанием для которого являлось обвинение о связях с немецкой разведкой [24]. Сотрудниками СМЕРШ также было задержано 17 из 30 подготовленных им диверсантов, предотвратив совершение диверсионно-террористических актов.

Остальные были объявлены в розыск [23]. К нему применялись пытки бессонницей, но не физическое воздействие. Сам Нжде отрицал обвинения в убийствах коммунистов, утверждая, что расстреляны были пленные турки из отряда Завал-паши, переодетые в красноармейскую форму, при том без его ведома, по инициативе местного населения [8] [ неавторитетный источник? Был направлен во Владимирскую тюрьму. В марте года Гарегина Нжде второй раз привезли в Ереван.

В разные периоды Нжде был заключён в московские тюрьмы: От множества болезней туберкулез , гипертония и так далее в году здоровье Гарегина Нжде ухудшилось до такой степени, что руководство тюремной больницы приняло решение о его досрочном освобождении из тюрьмы, но Нжде не был освобожден [2]. В сентябре года его вновь отправили во Владимирскую тюрьму, где он умер 21 декабря того же года.

Брату, Левону Тер-Арутюняну, было отказано похоронить Нжде в Армении, и из личных вещей были выданы только одежда и часы. Нжде был похоронен братом, и на огороженной могиле поставлена табличка: Тер-Арутюнян Гарегин Егишеевич — В августе года прах Гарегина Нжде был перевезён в Армению супругом внучки Нжде: Павлом Ананяном по предложению Гургена Армаганяна.

В апреле года две части останков захороненного в Спитакаворе Гарегина Нжде правая рука и две косточки были взяты и 26 апреля [26] захоронены при построенном в Кафане мемориале-памятнике с ведома правительства Республики Армения. В пост-советский период в Армении Нжде считается национальным героем, его расистские взгляды преуменьшаются, а национализм одобряется. Созданной им идеологии Цегакрона придерживаются крайние националисты [14]. Начиная с х годов под влиянием идей Нжде был создан ряд партий [27].

Боевики этой партии принимали участие в Карабахской войне. Она была создана Ашотом Навасардян , который являлся неоязычником. Позже неоязыческий национализм партии, уделявший значительное место идеям и образам Нжде, уступил место фундаментальному национализму, где Армянская Апостольская Церковь вновь возглавили список национальных ценностей.

Однако Нжде продолжает существовать как канонический герой [29]. Корни армянского неоязычества связаны с Гарегином Нжде, который начинает пропагандировать его х годах. В современной Армении неоязычество стало распространяться с конца года, когда ряд интеллектуалов предложил вернуться к армянской дохристианской вере [27].

Нжде является культовым символом в среде армянских неоязычников , вокруг которого складываются неомифилогические тексты и легенды. К местам его ритуальных захоронений организуются паломничества. Согласно жрецам, паломники надеются, что их посетит видение божества Ваагна , как оно посетило Нжде. На второй из могил Нжде дважды совершается обряд.

математика в твоих руках. 1-4 класс. начальная школа е. м. кац, а. б. калинина, а. м. тилипман. All Rights Reserved