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Fix for website change at Amazon. Prevent cycles in the replacement rules from causing the Tag mapper to hang Closes tickets: Set the foreground color as well as the background color for the reference mode popup.

Makes it legible even when the user specifies a different color theme for the viewer New news sources La Politica Online by Darko Miletic. Add an option to mark rejected books in the main book list after the review is completed Closes tickets: Add a button to undo the last spelling change Bug fixes Edit metadata dialog: When downloading metadata with download of authors turned off, do not regenerate the author sort field after the download Closes tickets: Fix pre-selection of filename when renaming a file in the root Tag mapper: Fix bug when replacement tag has comma in it and the replacement rule is not the last rule Improved news sources Sueddeutsche.

Add context menu item to change selected entries to upper case Bug fixes Edit book: Fix clicking on first-letter groups for series not working DOCX output: Ignore corrupted images in the input instead of erroring out on them E-book viewer: Fix keyboard shortcut to toggle table of contents not working when ToC window is made floating Closes tickets: When the replacement tag contains commas, create multiple tags instead of replacing the comma with a semi-colon Closes tickets: Do not fail when input contains HTML comments with double hyphens in the comment text E-book polishing: Show a confirmation if the user selects both the add and remove jacket actions Edit book: Fix order of checkboxes in filter style information tool is random PDB input: Ignore malformed metadata records Closes tickets: Apparently xdg-open is so badly broken that working around it is not possible Closes tickets: Support for newly firmware version 3.

Fix automatic correction of missing unique id sometimes not working Closes tickets: Do not fail to read metadata if the volume is not a valid number Closes tickets: Workaround for systems with broken xdg-open implementations that do not unquote URLs before passing them to applications Get books: Add a tool to check external links links pointing to websites.

This prevented the stylesheet from working with some reader devices Copy to library: When merging book records, show more information about the target book record Closes tickets: Fix automatic fixing of unsafe ids not working if the file containing the unsafe also needs to be fixed for an unsafe filename Closes tickets: Informative error message for themes button when no themes have been created Fix a regression that caused the library switch entries at the bottom of the library menu to not work when there are many libraries Closes tickets: Update Amazon EU store plugins for website changes.

Several icon themes are already available for calibre When adding empty books to the library also allow creating duplicates of the current book, with all metadata copied.

Add support for firmware 3. Add a command line option to open the previously read book when starting up Closes tickets: Install application and mimetype icons in multiple sizes Closes tickets: Support for yet another variant of Amazon cover image markup E-book viewer: Fix --open-at sometimes giving inaccurate results depends on speed of book loading EPUB metadata: Add workaround for bug in PocketBook firmware which causes it to fail to read series metadata if the series number is declared before the series Closes tickets: Fix incorrect links that consist only of an anchor and no filename not being detected Closes tickets: Fix large tables with many columns not rendering correctly on Kindle devices Closes tickets: Add support for the new firmware version 3.

Allow setting the number of pages per screen separately for portrait and landscape modes Closes tickets: Fix a regression in the previous release that broke conversion of some documents that specify vertical alignment in absolute units Book list: Fix the current row number being partially cutoff on some windows 10 machines Closes tickets: Fix error when converting a file that uses media queries with comments in the media selector Closes tickets: Add support for Amazon.

Add an option to not add the generated catalog to the library Closes tickets: Improve performance of hyphenation by updating the version of the hyphenation library it uses Bug fixes DOCX input: Add support for text whose vertical position is adjusted by offsets from the baseline DOCX output: Handle length and percentage values for vertical-align in the input document Closes tickets: Fix automatic correction of invalid ids not updating the idrefs in the spine for ids in the manifest of the OPF file Closes tickets: Fix printing to PDF could result in filenames with characters not supported by Windows Closes tickets: Fix custom styles with a dot in their name not being inherited Closes tickets: When showing suggestions for mis-spelled words, also show suggestions from user created word lists Edit book: Add a check for "invalid" ids Bug fixes Conversion: Ignore stylesheets linked via media queries that use device specific features Closes tickets: Add support for numbered lists that do not start numbering at 1 Closes tickets: Automatically save the current reading position every ten seconds.

Add a new search sub-command that can be used to generate a list of book ids from a search expression Tag editor: Place the keyboard focus on the last edited field Closes tickets: When clicking Next and Previous preserve the current tab of the edit comments widget Closes tickets: Various fixes to make calibre work when compiled against the latest versions of Qt and PyQt Closes tickets: Allow drag and drop of files onto dock icon on macOS Bug fixes There was a regression in 2.

Fix a regression in the previous release that caused the maximum text width setting in full screen mode to be ignored when switching from normal to full screen Closes tickets: Workaround for Qt 5 regression that causes any errors during startup to be hidden behind the splash screen Closes tickets: Fix error when input document contains a font size exactly one point away from the base size Closes tickets: Handle devices with undecodeable filenames in their filesystem.

Simply ignore those files Closes tickets: Make the search engine used for searching for selected text configurable in the Miscellaneous section of the viewer preferences Bug fixes E-book viewer: Fix dragging to select text with the mouse causing the page to slide sideways in paged mode, if the mouse leaves the text area Closes tickets: Fix transitioning between full screen mode and normal mode sometimes causing current position to not be preserved Closes tickets: Ignore incorrect text encoding incorrectly encoded bytes are now replaced by placeholders instead of erroring out Closes tickets: Fix groups in replace template being interpreted backwards when search direction is up Searching: When search as you type is active, do not change automatically change focus to the book list when searching, unless the user presses Enter Closes tickets: Fix subsetting removing some needed ligatures when subsetting some Arabic fonts Prevent errors when testing email sending even if stderr on the host machine is broken New news sources Various Ukranian news sources by rpalyvoda Improved news sources Baltimore Sun El Mercurio Chile Sydney Morning Herald.

If there are entries in the Table of Contents that are long enough to be truncated, display the full text in a popup menu when the mouse hovers over the item Closes tickets: Add support for turning off SSL certificate verification in individual recipes Kobo driver: Support for upcoming firmware version 3. Fix aspect ratio of images being distorted when the input document specifies image width but not height or vice-versa Closes tickets: Fix extra page breaks being inserted in some situations Closes tickets: For example, click on the tags field for a book and press Shift-F2 Tag browser: Allow undoing the deletion of items in the Manage categories window calibredb add: Detect the common idiom of placing centered images as inline images inside a containing centered block and render the resulting image as a floating centered image in the DOCX file Closes tickets: Remove duplicate anchors to workaround some Kindle renderers using the last occurrence of an anchor as the target instead of the first Closes tickets: When importing multiple files into the book, import them in the order sorted by their filenames instead of in random order E-book viewer: Also make the print to pdf dialog a little easier to use Edit book: Add a clear button for the publisher Closes tickets: Add option to not insert page breaks between endnotes Closes tickets: Allow outputting the book languages as well Closes tickets: When embedding metadata fails for some books, add an option to show the failed books in the book list Closes tickets: When printing, print to a PDF file instead of directly to the printer.

This fixes printing not working on some systems Closes tickets: Handle KindleGen produced AZW3 files that do not use normal HTML anchors for linking Fix too many open files errors that could occur in a few places on macOS Do not allow user to hide all columns in book list via the context menu, as restoring them becomes difficult.

This might fix the issue of calibre randomly freezing on startup on a few Windows systems MOBI ouput: First-letter applied to elements containing a comment causing conversion to fail Properly display names of libraries containing the ampersand character Closes tickets: Fix errors when library contains enough virtual libraries to cause grouping Closes tickets: Fix setting a tag to empty causes an unhandled error Closes tickets: Fix a regression that caused the viewer to occasionally skip the last page in a chapter when displaying more than one pages per screen and scrolling by screen Edit book: Fix open OPF file not being refreshed when deleting items from the file browser Closes tickets: Make embedding fonts using the manage fonts dialog easier.

You can now double click on a font family to see what faces for that family area available on your computer and install new fonts directly from the dialog Book details panel: When displaying multiple pages per screen fix whole screen scrolling so that it works as expected even at the end of the file, when their might be fewer pages left than would fill the screen DOCX input: Automatically resize large images used as bullets in lists, to compensate for the fact that HTML renderers do not do this Book list: Fix regression that caused copying of non-breaking spaces to not work when using the keyboard shortcuts Open with: Add an option to not save the bookmarks inside EPUB files, under the Miscellaneous section of the viewer preferences Manage User categories: Allow restricting the visible items to only those present in the current Virtual Library if any Book details panel: Allow copying full path to e-book files by right clicking on the format link Closes tickets: Fix GIF format images being corrupted when using the builtin image editor to make changes to them Closes tickets: When dragging and dropping files to re-order them in the file browser, fix the final order being dependent on the order the files were selected in Closes tickets: Fix error when converting a document that contains an invalid function based CSS selector without parentheses Closes tickets: Preserve position in list of books when deleting books from the device view Make the context menu for the book details popup window work the same way as for the book details panel Get books: Update Amazon store plugin for website changes PDF metadata: Fix links not working in viewer for MOBI files that contain anchors placed on linebreak elements Closes tickets: Fix copying path link by right clicking on it not working Closes tickets: Fix apostrophes in icon filenames causing errors Closes tickets: Fix open with failing to get list of default programs on Windows if the registry contains missing ProgIDs Closes tickets: When editing data in the book list directly, expand the editor widget to use all available width if the data does not fit inside the current column width Edit book: When re-opening a previously edited book, restore all open files and the cursor position.

Speed-up metadata download from Amazon. Add support for intra-document cross-references Closes tickets: Work around Amazon server problems where it does not return Kindle Editions in search results when not logged in Closes tickets: Fix OPDS categories not showing books for composite column categories if the column contains a colon Single convert dialog: Only write metadata updates if metadata actually changed. Also show a nicer error message when a file is locked by another process Open with: Fix error when scanning for default programs on Windows for some file types Edit book: Simply choose one, or if your particular application is not auto-detected, you can browse for it manually Tag browser: Make rename and delete for items in the Tag browser restrict themselves to the current Virtual library if any.

There is also an additional menu entry you can use to rename and delete across all books while in a Virtual library Conversion: Allow restoring of disabled confirmation prompts in preferences and add a confirmation when removing Saved searches Edit ToC button: Remember the last used e-book formats Bug fixes E-book viewer: Fix regression that prevented pasting of text with formatting from the viewer Closes tickets: Fix selecting a location inside a file and then clicking on another file causes the previous location to be used in the new file Closes tickets: Fix incorrect bold font weight being used for heading styles even if the style definition does not specify bold Closes tickets: Fix incorrect rendering of text in elements that use font-variant: Ignore unparseable links instead of aborting the conversion on them Closes tickets: Fix column alignment incorrectly propagating when changing libraries FB2 input: Do not put a border around images Fixes for various incompatibilities with Py Qt 5.

Fix extra search being hidden when removing a Saved search Fix a regression in 2. For mis-spelled words of the form one: Fix regression in 2. Update plugin for website changes to Amazon Brazil Closes tickets: Fix footnote popup window not displaying entire footnote if footnote contains element with page-break-after set Edit book: Fix double clicking on an unused image causing an error Tag browser: Fix incorrect grouping of words starting with graphemes, such as ash Closes tickets: Ignore incorrectly URL encoded links instead of erroring out on them Closes tickets: Remove soft-hyphens when copying text to clipboard Improved news sources aktualne.

Allow the Quickview window to be docked into the main calibre window Closes tickets: Allow setting the title as well as the author and series for the added empty book records Windows driver for Grammata Papyre Closes tickets: Add an option to turn off auto-completion of closing tags Allow adding a description for custom columns Closes tickets: Linux was not affected by this bug Closes tickets: Change handling of sequences of space characters to more closely follow Microsoft Word Edit book: Fix Table of Contents editor not remembering its saved state across calibre sessions Edit book: Disallow drag and drop of documents onto the preview panel to workaround crashing bug in Qt Closes tickets: Fix current page not being preserved when opening and then immediately closing the footnote window Closes tickets: Re-arrange the controls to avoid needing to move the mouse from the top to the bottom of the dialog when closing the dialog after making some changes Bug fixes Save to Disk: Fix a bug where when multiple books are being saved to disk, if the save to disk template results in identical filenames, the filenames were not being properly disambiguated Preferences: A new reports tool that shows a summary of files, images, words, characters and styles used in the book The reports tool is a great way to get an overview of the different parts of your book.

Every line in the report is hot-linked, double clicking it jumps to the places in the book where that item is used Edit book: Add support for snippets -- small pieces of text that are often re-used You can now create your own snippets and insert them into the text with only a few keystrokes.

When importing files and the book has an orphaned entry in the manifest for that file, but the file itself is not present, rename the file instead of erroring out Closes tickets: Fix author links with URL schemes other than http or file preventing context menu from working Closes tickets: Make the minimum height for headers and footers scale with the base font size Fix a typo that prevented the Cybook Muse from being detected on some computers Closes tickets: Add auto-completion for links Now as you type the filename in href or src attributes, a popup with possible completions is displayed.

Allow auto-fixing of file not in spine errors Driver for Papyre ml Closes tickets: Convert images encoded as data URIs in the input document into normal images, as some e-book reader software cannot handle data URIs Closes tickets: Fix scrollbar sometimes not visible if the differences contain a few, very long lines.

Also fix the line numbers being partially obscured on some systems depending on the font used Closes tickets: Fix a regression that caused the Home key to not move to the start of the line on lines containing un-indented tags Get books: Update the Amazon US plugin for website changes Closes tickets: Automatically insert series number when selecting a series from the completion dropdown. Also if the user does not specify a series number, use 1 as the default, instead of not setting the series Closes tickets: Fix metadata download not working for titles that contain a apostrophes in languages other than English Closes tickets: Fix generation of FB2 sections based on a multi-level Table of Contents in the input document Closes tickets: Workaround for broken FB2 files produced by convertonlinefree.

Workaround for macOS installs that have incorrect permissions set on their home directories. Allow editing identifiers in a dedicated window by right clicking on the identifiers edit box Closes tickets: Add support for new firmware version 3.

Fix a regression that prevented saving of files into the root of a drive on Windows FB2 input: Add support for FB2 books that incorrectly use the FictionBook 2. Fix sorting of bookmarks by position in book not working on Windows and macOS Closes tickets: Fix bookmarks not being deleted from device when deleting books on the device Closes tickets: Fix auto-complete of closing tag not working when typing the closing tag at just before a word the word would become the closing tag name calibredb: Fix list --for-machine ignoring custom columns Closes tickets: Fix subsetting of fonts whose font-face rules use the local or format CSS functions not working Edit book: Fix regression that broke typing of XML entities for ampersand, less-than and greater-than Edit book: Add a new function annotation replace.

See the User Manual for details Bug fixes Get books: Update Woblink store plugin for website changes Book polishing: Ignore zero byte font files in the e-book instead of erroring out on them when subsetting fonts Closes tickets: Tighten heuristic used to detect footnote links.

Do not consider a link that is the only content inside a block level tag as an endnote link, even if it is linked back to from its destination Update the version of libimobiledevice shipped in the Linux and macOS builds to 1.

Add support for font-family aliasing in font-face rules Closes tickets: Add support for multilingual documents Closes tickets: Fix date fields being displayed in the UTC timezone instead of the local timezone, causing the day to be off by one in some timezones Closes tickets: Add suggestions for the tags, authors, publishers and series fields. Suggestions will pop-up as you type Closes tickets: Improve performance when adding large numbers of books at once Add books: Prioritize results that have the same language as the current calibre user interface language Edit book: Fix popup footnotes not working on Windows Fix saving of searches that use the backslash to escape special characters not working Closes tickets: When multiple books end up with the same file name because they have the same metadata, automatically adjust the filename to make it unique Closes tickets: Update the Amazon European store plugins for website changes Edit book: Fix regression on Unity that prevented some keyboard shortcuts from working because of the global menu bar Closes tickets: Fix cover not being found for some books because of a website change at Amazon.

Fix incorrect conversion of east-asian characters in CSS class names Closes tickets: Any link that links to another file which in turn links back to the original link, is assumed to be an endnote Cover grid: Improve scroll wheel based scrolling On Windows and Linux a single "tick" of the wheel now scrolls by about half a row instead of a full screen.

On macOS, scrolling is pixel based, so as you scroll faster, more content is scrolled Get books: Add the Bubok Portugal store Performance improvement for large libraries that using custom columns built with templates Review downloaded metadata dialog: Allow merging tags by long clicking the revert button Bug fixes Fix a regression in 2. Fix Unity global menu bar stops working after minimizing calibre to the dock or the system tray Closes tickets: Add support for the global menubar in Ubuntu Unity The menu that is displayed in the top most on screen bar.

It now works both with the main calibre program and the e-book editor. Add a new store, Bubok bubok. Allow merging downloaded and current identifiers by long-clicking the revert button Closes tickets: Add an option to prevent tapping on the page from turning pages Bug fixes Re-enable the system tray icon on Linux. On Windows if the calibre window is minimized, fix clicking on the system tray icon not restoring the window Closes tickets: Clear history when reloading the book, to avoid errors, since the locations pointed to by the history may no longer be valid anyway Linux: Fix links that are absolute paths causing crashes on Windows Fix the read metadata from format button in the edit metadata dialog not working for FB2 files Closes tickets: It now waits in the lower right corner of the main window until you are ready to deal with it Closes tickets: Make the invisible tags used for searching across books format better, by giving them their own table row Book details panel: Ignore un-parseable links when trying to generate ToC from links, instead of aborting the conversion Closes tickets: Allow changing the order of fields in the generated CSV catalog by using drag and drop to re-arrange the fields in the create catalog dialog Closes tickets: When editing metadata individually for multiple books, popup a confirmation if the user clicks OK before finishing the editing of all the books Closes tickets: Remember the last used values for where to search and search direction E-book viewer: Allow right clicking on the toolbar buttons to popup the optional menus, useful when using the viewer on a touch screen Closes tickets: Update to support soon to be released firmware update from Kobo Bug fixes Amazon metadata download: Update the Amazon metadata download plugin to handle changes to the Amazon.

Ignore invalid attribute names in the input document rather than aborting the conversion on them Book details panel: Fix custom columns built from other columns with tag like values not clickable in the book details panel Closes tickets: Output all custom date time columns in the local timezone to match the format for builtin columns E-book viewer: When looking up words in the dictionary for a book that has no language set, use the current calibre interface language Fix comments editor widget in the edit metadata dialog swallowing Tab key presses, preventing the use of the keyboard to move between widgets.

Workaround for regression in Qt 5 that causes pressing the Esc key to close the entire window instead of the current completion popup Fix Advanced search dialog not being sized correctly if the user selects a larger than normal interface font Closes tickets: Fix page turning by clicking in the margins in full screen mode when displaying more than one page per screen not working because of a Qt 5 behavior change Improved news sources nrcnext Wall Street Journal Smithsonian Magazine Sueddeutsche Zeitung mobil.

Allow changing the website that is used as a dictionary for looking up words in the viewer. When embedding fonts or subsetting embedded fonts, handle the: Fix replaced words coming back into the list when toggling the Show only misspelled words setting Edit book: Fix replacing a word with multiple words causing the replacements to show up erroneously in the list of misspelled words Closes tickets: Fix leading or trailing hyphens on words being ignored when Spell checking Closes tickets: Fix drag and drop of books onto a language not setting the language Closes tickets: When renaming an item that is currently being searched for, remove the search indicator, as the search will no longer match the renamed item Closes tickets: Fix getting cover from EPUB files that have no cover image by rendering the first page as the cover not working Closes tickets: Fix disabled color schemes not being saved Closes tickets: You can customize the random cover generation by long clicking the Generate Cover button, which will popup a dialog where you can create new color schemes and customize other aspects of the generated cover as well Edit book: Redesign the Saved searches pop-up as a dockable window.

Allow undoing a metadata download by long-clicking the Download metadata button and choosing "Undo last metadata download" Edit metadata dialog: Allow undoing the changes to individual fields by right clicking on the field and selecting Undo after a metadata download Closes tickets: Support for the keepNext paragraph property to keep successive paragraphs on the same page Template language: Fix displaying multiple pages per screen not working in calibre 2.

Fix unintuitive behavior of back and forward buttons when going all the way back to the first item in the history Closes tickets: Do not allow default user-agent style rules to ever override style rules defined in the input document, regardless of CSS selector specificity Closes tickets: Dynamically adjust the size of the in memory cover thumbnail cache based on the window size to ensure flicker free rendering even on very large screens Closes tickets: Remember last used template Get books: When downloading books show a popup message telling the user that the books will be added to the calibre library automatically, to help new users understand what is happening.

Here are just a few devices that depend on microchips: Now and then I note the chemicals or minerals used in the process to give you an idea of the complexity. Silicon wafers are the platform for microprocessors used in transistors, power and RF devices, dynamic random access memories dram , and microprocessors.

There are many ways to make them. The more complex microprocessors require much more processing and materials often layering is done with diamonds, Si-Ge, and other materials, like a complex submarine sandwich that might include gallium arsenide, indium phosphide and antimonide, Si-Ge. Within a chamber having a controlled atmosphere to grow the silicon crystals using very careful temperature control.

Make interconnect with copper: A mold is coated with liner and seed layers, then copper is electrochemically poured in, with excess removed in a polishing step, and finally the surface is capped with a dielectric material to protect the copper often with a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Because as devices shrink to the submicron level, circuit performance has encountered problems that can slow it down, and this is solved by applying silicides, which ideally have low resistivity, easily form thin films, withstand chemicals and high temperatures, adhere well to other layers, is smooth, and much more.

There are many possible compositions of silicides, each with their strengths and weaknesses. An intricate and central feature of making semiconductor devices. Plasma chambers etch or deposit thin films of material. Etching needs a high-density plasma that generates ions which remove atoms of material.

Deposition is similar except coating is the objective. Chemical etch is done in high-pressure conditions. Vacuum technology Measurement Equipment required: Force Displacement Gauges liquid level barometer, U-Tube manometer, McLeod Gauge, Bourdon-tube gauge, diaphragm gauge , Capacitance Manometers, Thermal Transfer Gauges thermocouple gauge Pirani gauge, convection-enhanced Pirani gauge , Ionization Gauges hot cathode ionization, cold cathode ionization, Partial Pressure analyzers, Residual gas analyzers.

Vacuum creating equipment required: Primary vacuum pumps oil sealed rotary vane mechanical, dry diaphragm, scroll, screw, sorption pumps.

Flanges with demountable seals to connect to vacuum vessel, valves to control the flow of gas in and out, feed-throughs allow for mechanical motion, radiation, or fluids in and out of vacuum vessels to manipulate objects inside the vacuum.

The intermediate steps between design and wafer, the stencils used to print images onto the semiconductor material. Design data is conditioned to generate instructions for the pattern generator to use to print the mask features, then converted to a file format acceptable to the pattern generation tool. Enormous computer resources are needed for this complex step. As chips shrink, exponentially larger pattern files are required to cope. The generated files are so large that transferring them from the design center to the photomask vendor taxes networks.

The design data are printed on resist-coated photoblank with electron beam ebeam systems in a high vacuum that take 10 to 18 hours, or with laser-beamed systems using deep ultraviolet lasers in 5 to 9 hours. Atlas laser systems split the laser into 32 separate beams that are raster scanned across the mask with a facet rotating cylindrical mirror. After patterning, this step removes standing waves formed from reflections of the substrate surface since these can degrade the resist image leading to poor uniformity.

The exposed resist is removed by solvents, and surfactants improve the wetting of the resist, then developers are added with puddle processes left on top for a while and then rinsed off, or sprayed on.

After the exposed resist is removed, the underlying chrome is etched with wet processes using powerful acids or dry etch methods that use gases such as chlorine in a plasma induced by radio frequency energy. Resist removal and cleaning: After the pattern is etched into the chrome of the photomask, unexposed resist is removed with strong acids.

Quality assurance to make sure mask features were printed at the proper size, defect inspections. Final Cleaning and pellicle mounting: File sizes for design data ranged from 1. Data preparation times averaged 6. Fabrication processes of an integrated circuit fall into 3 categories: Conductors and insulators are used to connect and isolate transistors. Doping allows the conductivity of the silicon to vary with voltage.

The patterns are written with a photoresist lithography and etch transfer step usually up to 30 times to build the millions of transistors and many wires. Each pattern printed is aligned to the previous pattern and slowly the conductors, insulators, and doped regions are built up to form the final device.

Optical lithography is a photographic process which exposes the photoresist a light sensitive polymer and developed to form 3D images on the substrate. Substrate Preparation improves adhesion of photoresist material to substrate by cleaning, baking at C or using chemicals to get rid of water, and adding an adhesion promotor.

This has to be very carefully controlled to get the right thickness and uniformity which varies depending on the substrate material.

Dry the photoresist after the spin coat process by removing excess solvent using a hot, high-mass metal plate in a vacuum. Once exposed, the photoresist must be developed with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide poured on a rotating wafer or sprayed on. Dozens of ion implantation steps are usually required that very precisely plant the right amount of dopants ions at just the right spot.

Implanter beamlines also need a mass analysis devise to provide momentum dispersion and transverse focusing of the ion beams. There are high-current beamlines, high-energy beamlines, and medium current beamlines.

High-current and energy architectures use a multi-wafer batch processing chamber where many wafers can be implanted at once using a spinning disk at rpm of the wafers across a fixed-spot beam. Single wafer processing just ipmlants a single wafer. Postimplant thermal annealing repairs the crystalline structure of the wafer from the damage created during implantation and electrical activation of the new dopant ions. This is done usually with isothermal lamp or hot-walled furnaces. Wet chemical etching reacts with the substrate to produce soluble products that can be washed off.

I formati appositamente ideati per gli ebook hanno generalmente il vantaggio di essere adatti a piattaforme dotate di meno risorse hardware rispetto ai computer desktop.

Spesso infatti prevedono la riduzione delle dimensioni del testo e si adattano meglio ad essere visualizzati sui piccoli schermi dei dispositivi portatili. Questo tipo di formato presenta diversi svantaggi tra cui: Libri che si possono toccare, libri che si possono odorare, libri dai quali possiamo dipendere. Infatti, analizzando i dati, emerge che in Italia, su 19 mila ebook, ben 15 mila sono disponibili nella versione pirata.

Coloro che caricano sul web internet illegalmente, non agiscono in maniera disinteressata, ma per guadagnarne. Chi mette on line file riceve denaro dal servizio hosting, in base alla dimensioni e alle migliaia di scaricamenti. Inoltre, ne ricavano profitto le compagnie pubblicitarie che forniscono le inserzioni ai servizi di hosting e i provider di servizi finanziari attraverso cui i pagamenti possono avvenire anonimamente.

La ricerca, condotta in Uk da Kantar Media, rivela che i consumatori di ebook sono quelli che hanno pagato in numero maggiore per i contenuti di cui hanno usufruito rispetto ai consumatori di altro tipo film, musica, videogames ecc. Contribuisci a migliorarla secondo le convenzioni di Wikipedia.

математика в твоих руках. 1-4 класс. начальная школа е. м. кац, а. б. калинина, а. м. тилипман. All Rights Reserved